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Wednesday, May 9

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Wednesday, May 11

  1. page space.menu edited ... Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth Purgatory …
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    Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett
    Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth
    Purgatory
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    William Robinson
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  2. page space.menu edited ... Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth Purgatory W…
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    Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett
    Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth
    Purgatory William Robinson
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    6:50 am
  3. page space.menu edited ... Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth Purgatory
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    Reformation Music By:Teri-Ann Barrett
    Medieval Christianity and Islam by Elveth
    Purgatory
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  4. page Purgatory- Origins of the doctrine edited Purgatory- Origins of the doctrineThe The Catholic Doctrine by William Robinson {http://wayla…
    Purgatory- Origins of the doctrineTheThe Catholic Doctrine
    by William Robinson
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  5. page Purgatory- Origins of the doctrine edited The Purgatory- Origins of the doctrineThe Catholic Doctrine of Purgatory by William Robinson …
    ThePurgatory- Origins of the doctrineThe Catholic Doctrine of Purgatory
    by William Robinson

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    The Catholic Doctrine of Purgatory
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Monday, May 9

  1. page Roderick Hulin - Pilgrimage edited ... {pilgrimage.jpg} Medieval pilgrimages began during the rule of Constantine in the 4th centur…
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    Medieval pilgrimages began during the rule of Constantine in the 4th century. One of the earliest pilgrimages was that of St. Helena, mother of Constantine. It is noted that she traveled to Jerusalem where she discovered an ancient relic, the cross of the Resurrection. This provided the spark for pilgrimages to sites of Saints and relics to occur all throughout Europe. It became necessary for sites associated with the Apostles, Saints, and other Christian Martyrs to have relics to ensure its importance to the Christian faith. Also, it was so ordered by Charlemagne that all churches throughout the kingdom maintained relics on the altars. The Crusades began as the products of the Council of Clermont (Dickson 2000). Author Gary Dickson notes in Religious Enthusiasm in the Medieval: Revivals, Crusades, Saints (2000) that the Crusaders were described as new types of pilgrims, "purpose-built to seize Jerusalem as a Christian prize" (Dickson 2000).
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    so we wil observe two
    From the beginning, medieval pilgrimages were focused as journeys to Jerusalem (Chrystie 2001). That changed when the Muslims captured many lands between Europe and the Holy Land, including Acre (Chrystie 2001). This resulted in pilgrimages becoming all the more dangerous and the pilgrims arming themselves. The Crusades during the Middle Ages have been viewed from many different aspects. From the background, we see that they were born of pilgrimages. Early Crusaders were looked upon as armed pilgrims with a purpose. Jeanetta Chrystie wrote about pilgrimages and their changes in Christian History (2001). We will analyze her writings and Gary Dickson's Religious Enthusiasm in the Medieval: Revivals, Crusades, Saints (2000), on how pilgrimages and the Crusades evolved. We will also take a look at Paul Zumthor's The Medieval Travel Narrative (1994). This will help to shed some light on how later pilgrims and crusaders viewed their journeys and how they made sense of their actions.
    Pilgrimages during Medieval times were seen to accomplish many goals and endeavors of the clergy as well as the community. The church, reeling from its lack of contact with the Holy Land after the subsequent invasion and occupation of the Muslims, looked to establish an event which could bring about the faithful. In 1300, Pope Boniface established the first ever “Jubilee pilgrimage to Rome” (Chrystie 2001). During this time period, pilgrimages began to transform into the Crusades. Prior to this period, there was a revival in existence known as the Children’s Crusade. It began in 1212 and although it was widely accepted in certain circles, it was not known to be too kind to the children it was named after. It was considered to be crude, with no clear direction or organization, but not as violent as other Crusades had been depicted. Writers have described how the Children’s Crusade brought about “suffering, disillusionment, enslavement, and death the pueri (the children) as well as to others who got caught up into it” (Dickson 2000). Because of the suffering associated with this type of Crusade, it served as a warning to children who were rebellious and considered running away (Dickson 2000). When the Jubilee of Rome began, it drew a mixed crowd of religious people. This was an event that brought believers together regardless of gender, social status, or age (Dickson 2000). Once the Jubilee was underway, it was known to attract millions of pilgrims, more than 20 times the population of Rome. Since under the Jubilee was under the direction of Pope Boniface, he offered indulgences for the pilgrims in order to influence them into making the journey to Rome. This opportunity to mobilize the pilgrims to descend upon Rome, the church and the city benefited greatly. Pope Boniface was creative in sparking an interest in visiting the city. Many sought forgiveness of their sins, blessings, and other indulgences. Shopkeepers and innkeepers profited from the many pilgrims who traveled to Rome. Chrystie writes that “One merchant told of two clerics standing day and night by the altar of St. Paul's literally raking in the pilgrims' offerings” (Chrystie 2001). Although the donations were voluntary, the pope was accused of manipulating the pilgrims’ generosity with offers of atonement. These funds were widely believed to be used for “enriching Pope Boniface and financing wars” (Chrystie 2001). These were some of the earliest counts of how crusades benefited Rome and church. Pilgrims also began to show signs of journeys with “symbols and badges” (Chrystie 2001). The pilgrims to Rome bought souvenirs and brought back “natural souvenirs such as scallop shells, palm leaves, or keys” (Chrystie 2001). Like many in that period, there were other unscrupulous people who considered those mementos and keepsakes valuable just as the pilgrims did. As a result, the pilgrims subject to being robbed of their valuables. Not only that, but black-market relic trading had begun and the Church began a policy of not officially endorsing any relics (Chrystie 2001). This stemmed from the difficulty of proving the authenticity of many of the relics in existence.
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  2. page Roderick Hulin - Pilgrimage edited ... The Crusades occurred quite frequently during the Middle Ages in effort to retake lands occupi…
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    The Crusades occurred quite frequently during the Middle Ages in effort to retake lands occupied by the Muslims. The loss of those lands had a significant economic impact on the early church. With possession of those provinces of Europe, the Christian communities and the church were able to benefit from the trade of the Eastern markets. As Christian kingdoms expanded across Europe and expelled Muslims from parts of Spain, they were able to gain control trade routes. From the onset, the Christian church benefited from the expansion of the kingdom in the name of spreading the gospel. Soon, the differences between the Christian Crusaders and the Muslim invaders start to shrink as their goals start to parallel each other. Both groups were looking to gain control of key areas which would bring about essential wealth to their perspective kingdoms—all in the name of spreading their religious beliefs.
    Though the early church was corrupt during certain periods, it had been proven and documented that the underlining reason for spreading the Gospel was to increase the wealth of the Christian kingdom. Two key methods of making sure the Christian religion was extended and spread across the land was by pilgrimages and the Crusades, after which they came to become synonymous. With it's humble beginnings, pilgrimages were initially viewed as spiritual, extraordinary, concessionary experiences -- marked by the miraculous, the charismatic, and the astonishment observations of those in attendance. Pilgrimages were initially positioned by the Christian public to be used as a vehicle to gain enlightenment and to draw closer to Christ, but the reasons started to morph into an economic factors that altered the way the Christian church was viewed for years to come. The Crusaders, being the result of the transformation of the pilgrims, began to take on a new identity. Going under the auspices of spreading the Gospel, the Crusaders started to look like conquerors to many lands they embarked upon. The Vatican appeared to have more of a stake than just to expand the Christian faith, especially with Pope Boniface establishing the Jubilee. From my readings and research, the Church showed that it benefited financially a great deal from the start of pilgrimages and the Crusades. I tend to see evidence to this day in certain aspects of that same type process, but yet I still hold onto my Christian faith.
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Friday, May 6

  1. page irishcatholic edited ... Education of Medieval Monastic Women Although historians of medieval centuries have noted th…
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    Education of Medieval Monastic Women
    Although historians of medieval centuries have noted the lack of evidence on the education of women, it is my understanding after reading many articles that females, namely nuns, were well educated during the Middle Ages. Upon entering the convents monastic life enabled women to further their education; moreover, it was only through being a part of these monasteries that women were able to increase their learning, express their talent, convey their intellectual abilities, and eventually record their work. Otherwise education focused exclusively on sons or males. At that time the majority of women were educated early as children by their mothers. Since mothers were generally not in a position to further their own education, the idea of offering a daughter as tithe to the church may have been appealing. mothers knew their daughters would gain the opportunity to obtain a more thorough education in the arts, theology and philosophy. According to Susan Groag Bell’s article, Christine De Pizan (1364-1430): Humanism and the Problem of a Studious Woman, “intellectual pursuits for women throughout the medieval centuries were purely the condition for communion with God and therefore strictly reserved for those who devoted their lives to his service, namely nuns” (Bell, 173).
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    women largely in part to avoid
    We can thank women such as Hildegard of Bingen, who was the tenth child and whose family dedicated her as tithe to the church, and Christine de Pizan, who entered the convent as a widow instead of remarrying, for their advocacy concerning the education of women. Both women empowered the female gender with their ingenious works. These monastic women were compelled to educate other women so it became their vocation to be educators rather than just their religious beliefs which called them to the world of monasticism.
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    order to createdcreate new possibilities
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    Christine acquired anda reputation from
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    prevailed throughout the male dominated
    Hildegard is famed for creating iconography to include the feminine sacredness “with rich implications for visual arts, since many important aspects of Christian belief are depicted in inventive visionary form” (Storey, 17-18). “Herrad created many works or art also, along with an illuminated encyclopedia that included natural history and commentaries on the scriptures” (Storey, 18). Herrad’s encyclopedia included over 9000 figures within 600 illuminations. Elisabeth like Hildegard and Herrad, also had visions, and used this gift to convey her influence with her use of gender imagery as well as authoring books.
    It cannot go unmentioned that education was focused on boys, however, it was assumed of the times that mothers had the responsibility of finding tutors for their sons but most importantly they were in charge of educating their daughters in the household. Throughout the middle ages, materials such as Psalters, Gospels and Book of Hours were used to teach young children. Book of Hours were typically the only books in a home and they instructed lay women how to live, what their chores and responsibilities were, and encouraged women to represent themselves in a Christian manner, “girls were encouraged to busy themselves in reading and writing, girls could escape harmful thoughts and the pleasures of vanities of the flesh” (Bell, 755).
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    the Latin language, (which was the language of most written works) that they
    Because men’s attitude toward women was negative and as women suffered much oppression, monastic life became prominent and continued to rise throughout the middle ages. Women went to monasteries because they were a safe haven and for this reason the number of educated women continued to increase. Women of all ages, some married or widowed, looked to monastic institutions as an outlet where they could develop their talents and where they could obtain a “certain degree of autonomy” (McGuire, 8).
    So women in religious orders found monastic life to be an outlet where they could study, teach, express their frequent visions in their imageries and produce their many scholarly talented works. Hildegard, Herrad, Elisabeth, and Christine were all great female scholars whose works may not have even been created nor recorded and saved outside the walls of monastic institutions. Without their sacrifice and their dedicated service to God and to the education of other women, Christianity may not have been as cultured and as successful throughout the Middle Ages. As Christine so cleverly put it, “it was simply a question of ‘learning’ and so was the apparent intellectual difference between women and men” (Bell, 177).
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