In reading this I think you did a wonderful job information was well prepared enjoying reading.Jacqueline MoorePreaching in Medieval times
By
Avis Woods

Introduction
Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of another person while fully respecting the freedom of that person (Encarta). A significant part of effective leadership is the close connection between the leader and the follower, which often determines the success of the leader's mission. Who is a follower better to trust in than his/her pastor? For instance, in the early fifteenth century to the late sixteenth century pastors were great leaders which help to make changes in their follower’s lives. These pastors in the medieval times wrote books for the clergymen and pastors, preached sermons, and helped led people out of poverty which showed great examples of leadership.
Clergymen

In the later middle Ages devotional life played an important part listening to homilies and sermons. It is a difference between reading homilies and preaching sermons. When preachers bought forth a sermon they had to have skills. They had to know the doctrine and be able to write and organize their own sermons. Preachers’ sermons should exhort the audience and teach the audiences. Homilies were sermons written for priest that was not formal trained in preaching. Homilies were to help priests to guide their congregations in the right directions. All clergymen had to be able to read and speak clear and be able to translate the homilies to the audience that they would be able to understand the message. On Sunday before the offertory and bidding prayer the clergymen delivered the Sunday mass by reading homilies. Expect on Sunday when the priest preached a sermon. Delivery of a sermon was considered a different activity then the reading of a homily is evident from the preface of the first Book of Homilies (Wabuda, 553). In 1547 Archbishop Thomas Cranmer published his first book. His book is called Certain Sermons or Homilies Appointed to Be Read in Churches. Three of the homilies addressed the issue of justification: “Of saluaction of all manknde,” “Of the true and liuely fayth,: and “Of good works”. Faith excluded good works, so that the Christian might not be made good by doing them (Wabuda, 565). His minded was made up to change traditional homilies and replace them with bible base (scriptures) and teaching. It was during the 1530s and 1540s that this official shift to scripturally based homilies, one of the Reformation’s fundamental changes from late medieval practice (Wabuda, 566). His result on changing the homilies had been a chief support that has been around for years.

Protestant pastors
Protestant pastors were the new faces of the Reformation. The Reformation was initiated by Martin Luther, a protestant pastor, in the fifteenth century. The Reformation was initiated due to the objection of the Catholic Church. Protestant pastors were not accepting the duties of the Catholic Church, and formed the Protestant pastors. Protestant pastors anointed clergyman, young youth, and other men interested in doing preaching work.
Protestant pastors consisted of those who were fully trained and experimented in the ministry. The main functions of a protestant pastor were to preach and teach. Not only did they preach the good works of Christianity, they practiced them also. They also helped the clergy to carry out the duties of a protestant pastor, preparing younger men as replacements for those currently in office.
These pastors also produced public works all that were directed at present and future leaders. Pamphlets outlined the responsibilities and duties of pastors given in territory. For those who wanted to improve their knowledge, study plans were wrote by reformers. These were the people who were responsible for the bringing of the Protestant Reformation.
Later, books were written to give those who wanted further knowledge on the ministry the materials they needed. Loci Communes, a theological textbook, was written by Melanchthon, a German reformer. He was the first to write and give advice on how to write a sermon. He wrote about weddings, private confessions, and visiting the sick and dying.
So the preachers would not have to deal with tough one on one question of marriage and divorce, there were books and guidelines on the subjects. These were mainly “how to” books. But the most famous book was Ulrich Surgants, Manuale Curatorum, written in 1503.
Lutheran Pastors
In 1537 Gerhard Lorich’s published his Pastorale. He believed that it was best for a God fearing man that was married to become a priest than filling for a position with a non-God fearing man that was fornicating and only in the office for the priest on enjoyment. His Pastorale effort is to develop the church at the altitude of the parish, and his goal is to demonstrate what pastors as individuals can do to show improvement. His book also stated the importance of studying and preaching, for these two elements to him are the most important functions of being a priest. Furthermore, he dislikes and was strict on priest whom uses the church income for their on privileges and wants.
In 1546 Johannes Rivius’s published his Little Book on the Pastoral Office of Ministers in Rural Churches. His main focus on the book is towards rural pastors for they preached to the unfortunate people who did not care about what was the truth or what was false about their religion and faith. Despite his negativity towards the pastor and their followers, he did however believe that it could be improved.
Neil Hemmingsen’s book consists of four sections. Section One is devoted to his inner life. Section Two concerns his domestic life. Section Three describes how the pastor should act in public. The final section covers the duties of the pastoral ministry properly speaking (Burnett, 545). The name of his book is sive Pastoris optimus vivendi Agendique modus which was published in 1565. Even though his points and focus is similar to Rivius, his guidelines are more specific on how the priest should present himself in his everyday life.
Erasmus Sarcerius’s goal was to provide a practical handbook that the priest could use to carry out his daily responsibilities (Burnett, 549). The name of his book is Pastorale Oder Hirtenbuch which was published in 1559. Unlike the others, his concerns wasn’t on the education or abilities on these parish priest. Instead his book reflects his experiences of being a priest and his work of being a superintendent. This made the other priest close to him which also led them to want to follow his ways of study.
In 1603 Felix Bidembach’s published Manuale Ministrorum Ecclesiae, Handbuch. When he first started to preach he wished that someone had written a book on the beginning stages of becoming a priest. Therefore that is what he wrote about. His main concern and focus was on the inexperienced pastor so they can learn and know how to perform his duties in office. He believed this could help young pastors to make fewer mistakes if none at all.
The six manuals that were described in the 16th century were all written reflecting both the priorities and the experiences of its author. Not just that but also appointed to priest that was already in the parish.

Poverty
Poverty was a central Christian virtue throughout the middle ages, and many devout people, both clerics and the laity, sought a life of religious poverty (Bailey, 482). During the Middle Ages it was a powerful force of poverty that was surrounding ideas. That was base on some scriptures in the bible sure as:
“Take no gold, or silver, or copper in your belts, no bag for your journey, or two tunics, or sandals, or a staff,” Christ had commanded his apostles. He had sternly warned, “it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for someone who is rich to enter into the kingdom of God.” “If you wish to be perfect, go, sell your possessions and give your money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven” (Bailey, 457).
These scriptures were the beginning of commands and unpaid poverty in the medieval religious. As a result of obeying these scriptures it put the people under the enemy control because they gave up their materials goods to follow Christ.
However, there were two great men with those discussions on poverty. In the early fifteenth century they both help to clarify the problems with religious poverty. Both men were leaders of the movement of reform. Their names were Johannes Mulberg and Johannes Nider. They were great friends. Nider was a traveling companion for the older Mulberg. Mulberg was a harsh persecutor, which showed when he fought against poverty with his sermons, which lead him to get kicked out of Basel, for he was going against the beguines in Basel. However this decision of the Council of Basel did not stop his sermons and beliefs on having a true and proper poverty. On the other hand Nider was different. He was one of the most passionate and devoted defender of the beguine status. He started his attacks on Basel after Mulberg. However, by that time there were not many beguines left to follow him. Likewise, he was determined like Mulberg to stand up for his beliefs in having a better religious poverty for his people.

Conclusion

The leaders face special challenges as they try to communicate and interact with their followers which can cause chaos. Therefore, leaders who begin to use force, coercion, and manipulation must later use more force. No leader can be successful in influencing the behavior of other people unless those followers trust in the leader.


Bibliography Sources

Religious Poverty, Mendicancy, and Reform in the Late Middle Ages
Michael D. Bailey
Church History
Vol. 72, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 457-483
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4146256


The Evolution of the Lutheran Pastors Manual in the Sixteenth Century
Amy Nelson Burnett
Church History
Vol. 73, No. 3 (Sep., 2004), pp. 536-565
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4146565

Bishops and the Provision of Homilies, 1520 to 1547Susan WabudaThe Sixteenth Century JournalVol. 25, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 551-566 Published by: The Sixteenth Century JournalArticle Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2542633


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