Alentryal Jackson

Death and Buriala392_Spells-3[1].jpg

In medieval Christianity, the expressional and symbolism of death and burial rituals gave honor and, reference to the saints and elite members of society. The standard expressional was glorified with elaborate burial tombs, precious jewelry; elaborate clothing, and material items placed in the individual burial boxes of the deceased. The clergy and elite believed that burial rituals represented a life of devotional, displayed the purest example for the common peasant to remember and uplift the saints and elite remembers of medieval Christian society plasma into everlasting life (Bornstein 2010).
In contrast to elite and saints burial rituals, some elite and saints went against traditional by being buried as a common/ peasant, denouncing their noble status and traditions. This expressional of humility was frowned upon by medieval elitists and saints, unacceptable behavior for a Christian who wasted unmerited favor from god external life.
In elite society, funeral rites were performed not only to raise them above common peasants, but to make them immortalized saints (Bornstein 2010).
The use of commemorative events were used to remind all of the death anniversary either at the grave site or a symbolic memorial place the “commerative events” were elaborate expressional of “continuity of power” to show that the elite and saints were strong in this life and everlasting life. The larger the status of the elite or saints the more attendance of the people.
While the elite and saints of medieval Christians were focused on maintaining their traditions, the common peasant was in contrast to their system of death and burial sites (Bornstein 2010).
Due to lack of wealth, the commercial peasant had basic ceremonies, basic burial graves close and small rows of burial boxes placed for outside the city areas of medieval Christians town, not having money to church donations created a new behavior called “pagan defrance” sometimes it took 3 days for a priest or clergy to perform a burial ceremony for a common peasant created “a row of graves for outside townships”, people of mixed religions beliefs or beliefs at all (Bornstein 2010).
In contemporary English life, “pagan defiance” became the way of common peasant. The common peasant went against the ways of medieval elitist and saints by practicing a new burial ritual called cremations (Bornstein 2010).
Creational was frowned upon in medieval elite and saint society, but it was considered economical and easy to transport the remains after their loved ones died. Another form of creational was grave goods “burial ritual, a prehistoric mound burial,” an erected barrow accomplished by elaborate assemblages of grave goods. Their form of cremation and grave goods ritual offered few religions influence focused off past life achievements. Identified the giving of “grave goods by including age, gender, status, ethnicity and kinship. “Grace Goods” rituals differed depending on the regional the individual lived. The goods placed at the burial cities differed to fit “contemporary” needs the person used to honor the loved ones past away (Bornstein 2010).
The last burial ritual practiced by the “contemporary pagans” was burial inscriptions. In the life of ‘contemporary pagans”, the burial markings were used to preserve the memories of the deceased. The inscriptions contained words of hope for salvation of the individual leaving this physical world to the everlasting. The inscriptions were also used as a means to identifying the family’s last name as well as marking territorial boundaries (Bornstein 2010, 53-74).
Death and Burials

Statement: In Medieval Christianity the expression and symbolism of death and burial rituals gave honor and reference to the Saints and the Elite members of society.


Main Idea
Evidence
Tombs of Saints
Saints funeral theoretically represented occasions of great joy for their followers, even if the most devout Christians sometimes had difficulty expressing their elation at the loss of one of their own. Emphasis was placed on the belief that the beneficial presence of the holy did not end with their relics, which became a direct conduit to the heavenly sphere for those Christians left behind. Pg. 54
The veneration of such figures meant that priests, monks, and nuns, who were often members of the religious communities out of which these figures emerged, had great incentive to compose hagiographical works recalled not only their virtues and accomplishments during their lifetimes but also the miracles performed in their names after their death. Pg. 54
Burial inscriptions/ Grave Good
One prominent feature of many late antique and early medieval cemeteries in and sometimes beyond the territories occupied by the roman government was the presence of burial inscriptions. Among Christians the use of epitaphs was far less common than had been the case among Romans pagans, who had employed inscribed markers not only as a form of commemoration but also in fulfillment of legal obligations and traditions related to inheritance and the rights of citizenship. While many of their practical functions had disappeared by the fourth century, some pagan and Christian families evidently continued to believe that epitaphs were an effective way to mark the graves of the deceased and preserve their memories of close relations. Pg.66
Despite many similarities to its pagan predecessor, Christian’s epigraphy concentrated more heavily on matters related to the afterlife. Aside from naming the deceased and often the family member or members responsible for commissioning the inscription, compositions of more substantial length might draw attention to the piety of the deceased, express hope for his or her imminent salvation, and ask those passing by to pray for the departed soul. Pg. 66
Graves and Cemeteries
In northeastern Gaul as early as the fifth century and spreading to Brabant, Limburg, the alps, and farther afield during the sixth century and afterward, the predominant form of burial was in row grave cemeteries that likely included individuals of different religious persuasions. Pg.59
These necropolises might contain anywhere from some dozens to a few thousand interments, and they seem to have been used by the inhabitants of communities in the general vicinity. Other cemeteries in these regions were of smaller size and might be situated near ruins or prominent features in the landscape. Most appear to have had no documented link to local church or secular authorities. Pg. 59
Performance of funeral rite
The theatrical potential of funerals is most easily demonstrated by the elaborate burials for kings and other powerful elites. For the main ship burial in mound one at Sutton Hoo in East Anglia, for example, not only were a large number of individuals required to deposit the sailing vessel and it precious contents on land and cover the part above ground level with earth, but these activities themselves represented part of the ritual process. Pg.62
Feasting vessels, baptismal spoons, and coins that likely accompanied the deceased, whose skeletal remains did not survive, came from a wide range of places both nearby, including possible executions or human sacrifices, suggest that the site was used on multiple occasions for a variety of ritual purposes. Pg.62
Burial Inscriptions
One prominent feature of many late antique and early medieval cemeteries in and sometimes beyond the territories occupied by the roman government was the presence of burial inscriptions. Among Christians the use of epitaphs was far less common than had been the case among Roman Pagans, who employed inscribed markers not only as form of commemoration but also in fulfillment of legal obligations and traditions related to inheritance and the rights of citizenship. While many of their practical functions had disappeared by the fourth century, some pagan and Christian families evidently continued to believe that epitaphs were effective way to mark the graves of the deceased and preserve their memories of close relations. Pg. 66
Despite many similarities to its pagan predecessor, Christian epigraphy concentrated more heavily on matters related to the afterlife Aside from naming the deceased and often the family members or members responsible for commissioning the inscription ,compositions of more substantial length might draw attention to the piety of the deceased, express hope for his her imminent salvation, and ask those passing by to pray for the departed soul.Pg.66

Thesis: It is important to recognize that what the inhabitants of Western Europe shared in making decisions about funerals on behalf of their kin was the common understanding that funerals constituted important opportunities for the remembrance and idealization of the deceased through the display of their physical remains.
Bibliography
Bornstein , Daniel B. A People’s History of Christianity: Medieval Christianity .Fortress Press,(2010):53-74
Hadley, D.M. Death in Medieval England. South Carolina. Arcadia Publishing, Inc.,2001
James , Edward.”Burial and Status in the Early Medieval West” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, Vol. 39(1989): 23-40
Effros , Bonnie .Caring for the Body and Soul: Burial and After Life in the Merovingian World. Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002.

Converting the Barbarian West
Analysis # 1
Statement: Christianity made a considerable attempt to Christianize the Roman world. Christianity grew to be the most influential religious faction in Late Antiquity. And Christianity became the religion of aristocrats and emperors.



Making a Difference
Local variations abundant and the time span enormous but also the subject matter is extremely vast and highly complicated
Christianity of “ordinary” men and women which is based mainly on acts and participation in ceremonies was not the Christianity of theologians, and it is an reasonable to expect of the soul and a complete adhesion to a theology any scholar who embarks or such a mission has to make many choices of issues, sources, and interpretations, with the inevitable result of highly personal, even in some respects impressionistic view of early medieval Christianity.
Christian Time
Hence the Christianization of time became an integral part of the evangelization process. It was perceived as crucial prerequisite for the success of any mission, and both missionaries and clergy men made a constant effort to formulate a Christian calendar for their communities
.
Christian rhythm was estasblised the pace of life even in those agrarian societies was clearly measured against a Christian scale.
Christianizin
g kingship
Alexander colander Murray and Ian ward have demonstrated quite persuasively that his version of merovech’s birth tell us more about serenity century politics than about perceptions of king ship among the franks, a notion of king ship runs century to the prevails roman character of ruler ship, which emerges from other Merovingian sources
.
Never the less it is obvious that there was a change in tone in the seventh century and therefore we hear more about
kings in ecclesiastical terms. Given the scanty evidence at our dispoa evidence at our disposal, it is impossible to determine weather the barbarians had ever celebrated barbatoria before they first encountered roman civilization kings in ecclesiastical terms
The
Personal Life Cycle
During the early medieval Europe favored a different arguably Greco-Roman rite of passage for the young male the bar batoria which was celebrated when the beard of the young adult was shared for the first time.

Pagan Survivals
The issue of pagan survivals is even more complicated than that. It raises a whole series of problems concerning the artificiality, in a sense of written models and traditions combining through the various beliefs, and practices that were condemned in the earth, middle ages as “pagan” or “suppositious”, one may ask what relationship the serection of such practices bears to changing realities
More over the late seventh and early eighth centuries in western Europe were a turning point in the references made to pagan’s and paganism



Statement:
Thesis: the image that emerges from these writings was far from being an accurate description of reality. Nut it helped Christianity to set up clear-out cut bounder.

Analysis # 2




The
Witness of flesh: Martyrs and Ascetics
The Marty’s triumphed over the body or moment of glorious self immolation. Those who dedicated themselves to a life of continence embarked on
rent less campaigns against the body and its urges a program of abstinence and sexual renunciation.
.The Dead heroes of Christ were joined by a living elite mark off from normal society by their distinctive way of life , resolutely maintained despite the constant assaults of temptation,
lust, and bodily desire
The Treasure of the Flesh: Relics
Anthony had long resisted the trend to preserve and display the remains of Martyrs, objecting that this practice was neither holy nor even proper and he sought in this way to see that his body would not be treasured after his death.
Anthony’s attempt to frustrate the growing cult of relics met with only partial success. His body may have been lost to those who wished to honor it but his clothing was not: each of those who received the sheep skin of Blessed Anthony and the garment worn by him guards it is a precious nature
.
Word made Fresh
As a condensation of the redemptive self-sacrifice of Jesus the living flesh that he had offered on the cross, the Eucharist was a relic like no other for it represented and unequaled sacrifice, suffering and love. But un equal but not in the end unrivaled. The evangelical revival of the eleventh and twelfth centuries inspired a fresh interest in the humanity of Jesus and the unexpected success of the First crusade opened the way to satisfy that curiosity9pg.89)
Since Devine spirit and worldly matter were inherently incompatible, God could not really have taken flesh, suffered on the cross, and risen from the grave. The physical water of baptism could not possibly wash a soul clean of sin. A morsel of mere bread could not contain God , nor could any spiritual benefit ensue from eating that bread. Obviously, such claims struck at the very heart of Christian belief and practice and demanded an urgent response. Skeptics and heretics had to be shown in no uncertain terms that orthodox doctrine was true, orthodox sacraments valid. To that end, Innocent assembled councils or prelates and theologians, launched a crusade against the heretics, and welcomed miracles that confirmed the teachings of the church.(pg.90)
Living Saints
The late medieval proliferation of bleeding hosts conceded with an intense fascination with, and identification with the human, suffering Jesus, the man of sorrows, Christian in his passion. (g.95)
Paradoxically, those who most resolutely renounced the world found that an awestruck world pursued and enfolded them. Throngs of admirers gathered around hermits like Eon de l’Etoile in Brittany or followed peter the hermit to disaster on People’s Crusade. Occasionally these unstable groupings achieved a more regular and enduring structure, as when St. Norbert of Xanten and his followers gave rise to the premonstratensian order. But far more often these holy hermits left to trace in the historical record, beyond a brief and disapproving notice from some ecclesiastical chronicler.(pg.96)
Analysis #3
Statement: In Medieval Christianity the expression and symbolism of death and burial rituals gave honor and reference to the Saints and the Elite members of society.

Main Idea
Evidence
Tombs of Saints
Saints funeral theoretically represented occasions of great joy for their followers, even if the most devout Christians sometimes had difficulty expressing their elation at the loss of one of their own. Emphasis was placed on the belief that the beneficial presence of the holy did not end with their relics, which became a direct conduit to the heavenly sphere for those Christians left behind. Pg. 54
The veneration of such figures meant that priests, monks, and nuns, who were often members of the religious communities out of which these figures emerged, had great incentive to compose hagiographical works recalled not only their virtues and accomplishments during their lifetimes but also the miracles performed in their names after their death. Pg. 54
Burial inscriptions/ Grave Good
One prominent feature of many late antique and early medieval cemeteries in and sometimes beyond the territories occupied by the roman government was the presence of burial inscriptions. Among Christians the use of epitaphs was far less common than had been the case among Romans pagans, who had employed inscribed markers not only as a form of commemoration but also in fulfillment of legal obligations and traditions related to inheritance and the rights of citizenship. While many of their practical functions had disappeared by the fourth century, some pagan and Christian families evidently continued to believe that epitaphs were an effective way to mark the graves of the deceased and preserve their memories of close relations. Pg.66
Despite many similarities to its pagan predecessor, Christian’s epigraphy concentrated more heavily on matters related to the afterlife. Aside from naming the deceased and often the family member or members responsible for commissioning the inscription, compositions of more substantial length might draw attention to the piety of the deceased, express hope for his or her imminent salvation, and ask those passing by to pray for the departed soul. Pg. 66
Graves and Cemeteries
In northeastern Gaul as early as the fifth century and spreading to Brabant, Limburg, the alps, and farther afield during the sixth century and afterward, the predominant form of burial was in row grave cemeteries that likely included individuals of different religious persuasions. Pg.59
These necropolises might contain anywhere from some dozens to a few thousand interments, and they seem to have been used by the inhabitants of communities in the general vicinity. Other cemeteries in these regions were of smaller size and might be situated near ruins or prominent features in the landscape. Most appear to have had no documented link to local church or secular authorities. Pg. 59
Performance of funeral rite
The theatrical potential of funerals is most easily demonstrated by the elaborate burials for kings and other powerful elites. For the main ship burial in mound one at Sutton Hoo in East Anglia, for example, not only were a large number of individuals required to deposit the sailing vessel and it precious contents on land and cover the part above ground level with earth, but these activities themselves represented part of the ritual process. Pg.62
Feasting vessels, baptismal spoons, and coins that likely accompanied the deceased, whose skeletal remains did not survive, came from a wide range of places both nearby, including possible executions or human sacrifices, suggest that the site was used on multiple occasions for a variety of ritual purposes. Pg.62
Burial Inscriptions
One prominent feature of many late antique and early medieval cemeteries in and sometimes beyond the territories occupied by the roman government was the presence of burial inscriptions. Among Christians the use of epitaphs was far less common than had been the case among Roman Pagans, who employed inscribed markers not only as form of commemoration but also in fulfillment of legal obligations and traditions related to inheritance and the rights of citizenship. While many of their practical functions had disappeared by the fourth century, some pagan and Christian families evidently continued to believe that epitaphs were effective way to mark the graves of the deceased and preserve their memories of close relations. Pg. 66
Despite many similarities to its pagan predecessor, Christian epigraphy concentrated more heavily on matters related to the afterlife Aside from naming the deceased and often the family members or members responsible for commissioning the inscription ,compositions of more substantial length might draw attention to the piety of the deceased, express hope for his her imminent salvation, and ask those passing by to pray for the departed soul.Pg.66

Thesis: It is important to recognize that what the inhabitants of Western Europe shared in making decisions about funerals on behalf of their kin was the common understanding that funerals constituted important opportunities for the remembrance and idealization of the deceased through the display of their physical remains.